Warm Chorus – Re-thinking the Chorus Effect Using an Orchestral Section Model


Richard Dudas


The “warm chorus” effect described in this paper was initially designed for a string quartet concert in which a simulated string orchestra effect was requested by the performers. Due to the fact that the various “industry-standard” chorus effects which were available to us at the time left a lot to be desired from a musical standpoint, it was decided to create a tailor-made effect for the concert, using the Max/MSP environment, which could be used subsequently as a generic real-time chorusing tool. In order to overcome the mechanical quality inherent in many generic chorus algorithms, the “warm chorus” uses a model based on the performer arrangement in an orchestral string section. This novel approach inspired by human behaviour is further enhanced with additional signal processing techniques to help reduce the perceived “phasiness” of the processed sound, resulting in a chorus effect that is more natural than traditional off-the-shelf chorusing effects.

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2012 Best Presentation Award at the ICMC conference.

Where this paper has been cited:

• Kokoras, P., “Auditory Fusion and Holophonic Musical Texture in Xenakis’s Pithoprakta,” Proceedings of the Joint International Computer Music Conference (ICMC) and Sound and Music Computing Conference (SMC), Athens, Greece, 2014, pp. 76–80.

• Yim, J. Dudas, R., “Studio Report: CREAMA – Center for Research in Electro-Acoustic Music and Audio at Hanyang University”, Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference (ICMC), Perth, Australia, 2013